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2008考研英語真題有嗎?真題詳解閱讀理解出爐

考研真相君2020-08-12 13:59:04

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C,or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)


Text 2



It used to be so straightforward. A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. A journal editor would then remove the authors’ names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review. Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it. ?Copyright rested with the journal publisher, ?and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.?

No longer. ?The Internet—and pressure from funding agencies, ?who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it—is making ?access to scientific results a reality. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the farreaching consequences of this. The report, ?by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, ?makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits. But it goes further than that. It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.

The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. It is big business. In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and ?$11 billion. ?The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals.

This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. Entirely new business models are emerging;three main ones were identified by the report’s authors. ?There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories. ?Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. ?All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.


26.In the first paragraph,the author discusses.

A.the background information of journal editing

B.the publication routine of laboratory reports

C.the relations of authors with journal publishers

D.the traditional process of journal publication

27.Which of the following is true of the OECD report?

A.It criticizes governmentfunded research.

B.It introduces an effective means of publication.

C.It upsets profitmaking journal publishers.

D.It benefits scientific research considerably.

28.According to the text,online publication is significant in that.?

A.it provides an easier access to scientific results

B.it brings huge profits to scientific researchers

C.it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge

D.it facilitates public investment in scientific research

29.With the openaccess publishing model,the author of a paper is required to.?

A.cover the cost of its publication

B.subscribe to the journal publishing it

C.allow other online journals to use it freely

D.complete the peerreview before submission

30.Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

A.The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.

B.A new mode of publication is emerging.

C.Authors welcome the new channel for publication.

D.Publication is rendered easier by online service.


It used to be so straightforward.

?這在以前是非常簡單的。

【句子講解】本句是一個簡單句,其中主語是It,系動詞是used to be,表語是straightforward,so為副詞,修飾表語straightforward。

【詞匯注釋】straightforward [,stret'f?rw?d] ?a.簡單的,易懂的;正直的,坦率的【例】The instructions are reasonably straightforward. 用法說明還算簡單易懂。


A team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal.

?在實驗室里一起工作的研究人員將其研究成果投寄給學術刊物。

【句子講解】本句是一個由“主語(A team of researchers)+謂語(would submit)+賓語(the results)”構成的簡單句?,F在分詞短語working together…作后置定語,修飾researchers,介詞短語in the laboratory作working together的地點狀語;介詞短語of their research作后置定語,修飾the results;to a journal為介詞短語作狀語。

【詞匯注釋】submit [s?b'm?t] v.提交;屈從【詞組】submit applications 提交申請


A journal editor would then remove the authors’ names and affiliations from the paper and send it to their peers for review.?

刊物的編輯先從論文中刪去作者的名字和所屬單位,再送給同行審閱。

【句子講解】本句是簡單句。主語為A journal editor,and連接并列謂賓:謂語一為would…remove,其賓語為the authors names and affiliations,副詞then和介詞短語from the paper均作狀語;謂語二為(would)send,其賓語it指代the paper,介詞短語to their peers作狀語,表對象,介詞短語for review作目的狀語。

【詞匯注釋】affiliation [?,f?l?'e??n] ?n.附屬,隸屬;關系【記】affiliate v.隸屬于 n.附屬機構,分公司affiliated a.從屬的【例】He was arrested because of his political affiliation. 他因所屬政黨的關系而被捕。


Depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.?

根據收到的評審意見,刊物編輯決定是否發表該論。

【句子講解】本句是簡單句。主語是the editor,or連接并列的謂賓:謂語一是would accept,賓語是the paper,謂語二是(would)decline,賓語it指代前面的the paper?,F在分詞短語Depending on the comments 作狀語,過去分詞received作comments的后置定語;介詞短語for publication作accept…的目的狀語。

【詞匯注釋】decline* [d?'kla?n] ?v.拒絕;下降;變弱 n.下降;衰落;傾斜【詞組】fall into a decline失去力量on the decline在減少,在衰退【例】He declined to answer that question. 他拒絕回答那個問題。


Copyright rested with the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.?

論文的版權歸刊物的出版商所有,想要了解該研究成果的其他研究者就必須訂閱相關刊物。

【句子講解】本句是簡單句,由“主語(Copyright…and researchers)+謂語(would have to subscribe to)+賓語(the journal)”構成。其中,過去分詞短語rested with the journal publisher作后置定語,修飾Copyright;現在分詞短語seeking knowledge of the results作后置定語,修飾researchers。

【詞匯注釋】rest with 由……負責,取決于【例】It rests with the committee to decide. 這事要由委員會來決定。subscribe* [s?b'skra?b] ?v.訂閱,訂購(報刊等);預訂【記】subscriber n.(報刊的)訂閱人【詞組】subscribe to 定期訂購(或訂閱等)【例】Which journal does the library subscribe to? 圖書館訂有哪些報刊?

No longer. 現在情況改變了。

【句子講解】本句是一個省略句,具有承上啟下的作用,在語義上與上段構成轉折關系。其完整的句子應該是:It is no longer the situation before.


The Internet—and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it—is making access to scientific results a reality.?

一些贊助機構質疑為什么商業出版商可以通過限制人們使用科研成果,而從政府資助的研究項目中獲利。贊助機構施加的壓力和因特網的出現使查閱科研成果成為現實。

【句子圖解】

【要點注釋】主句中,主語是The Internet,謂語是is making,賓語是access to scientific results,a reality是賓語補足語,其中介詞短語to scientific results作后置定語,修飾access。

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has just issued a report describing the farreaching consequences of this. 最近經濟合作與發展組織 (OECD)發表報告描述了此舉的深遠意義。

【句子講解】本句是由“主語(The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)+謂語(has…issued)+賓語(a report)”構成的簡單句。(OECD)為主語的同位語,對其進行補充說明;副詞just作狀語,修飾謂語;現在分詞短語describing the farreaching consequences of this作report的后置定語。


The report, by John Houghton of Victoria University in Australia and Graham Vickery of the OECD, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome profits.

?這份由澳大利亞維多利亞大學的約翰·霍頓與經濟合作與發展組織的格雷漢姆·威克里共同完成的報告讓那些已經獲得了不菲利潤的出版商讀起來心情沉重。

【句子講解】本句是復合句。主句的結構為“主語(The report)+謂語(makes)+賓語(heavy reading)”;介詞短語by John Houghton…and Graham Vickery…作report的后置定語,其中介詞短語of Victoria University in Australia和of the OECD分別作John Houghton和Graham Vickery的后置定語;介詞for引出makes…的對象publishers。who引導的定語從句,修飾publishers;從句中,who代替先行詞publishers作主語,謂語是have…made,賓語是handsome profits,副詞短語so far作狀語。

【詞匯注釋】handsome ['h?ns?m] ?a.數量(收入)可觀的;英俊的;慷慨大方的【例】They will make a handsome profit on the property. 他們會從這片地產中賺取豐厚的利潤。

But it goes further than that. 但事情遠不止如此。

【句子講解】本句是一個簡單句。主語是it,goes在此為系動詞,further作表語,than that作比較狀語,that指代上文的內容。句首的But表示轉折。


It signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor.

?它還預示著目前科學研究中的一個關鍵因素將會改變。

【句子講解】本句是復合句。主句的主語是It,謂語是signals,賓語是a change。介詞短語in what…作后置定語,修飾change,其中what引導的賓語從句作介詞in的賓語。從句中,主語是what,系動詞是has…been,表語是a key element;介詞短語of scientific endeavor作element的后置定語,until now作時間狀語。

【詞匯注釋】endeavor* [?n'd?v?] ?n.努力;盡力v.努力;盡力【詞組】endeavor in致力于 endeavor to盡力【例】They endeavored to make her happy but in vain. 他們盡量使她快樂, 卻徒勞無功。


The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.?

知識的價值以及公共科研投資的回報價值在一定程度上取決于研究成果的廣泛分布和方便查閱。

【句子講解】本句是一個簡單句。主語是The value,謂語是depends…upon,賓語是wide distribution and ready access。其中,介詞短語of knowledge and the return…為The value的后置定語,介詞短語on the public investment…為the return的后置定語,介詞短語in research為investment的后置定語;in part為插入語。

【詞匯注釋】return* [r?'t?n] ?n.利潤, 收益(常作復數)【例】You’ll get a good return on these shares. 你會從這些股票中獲得豐厚利潤。in part ?部分地【例】His success was due in part to luck. 他成功的部分原因是運氣好。

It is big business. 這是一個大產業。

【句子講解】本句是一個簡單句。主語是It,系動詞是is,表語是big business。

In America, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion. 在美國,核心科學出版市場的價值估計在70到110億美元之間。

【句子講解】本句是簡單句,主語是the core scientific publishing market,謂語is estimated 使用了被動語態;介詞短語at between$7 billion and $11 billion為主語補足語。介詞短語In America作地點狀語。


The International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects.?

據國際科技和醫學出版協會統計:全世界有2,000多家出版商專門從事這種業務。

【句子講解】本句是復合句。主句的主語是The International Association,謂語是says,that引導的賓語從句作says的賓語;介詞短語of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers作主語的后置定語。賓語從句使用了there be句型,由“there+be(are)+主語(more than 2,000 publishers)”構成;副詞worldwide作地點狀語,現在分詞短語specializing in these subjects作publishers的后置定語。


They publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals. 它們每年在1.6萬種刊物上出版超過120萬篇論文。

【句子講解】本句是一個由“主語(They)+謂語(publish)+賓語(articles)”構成的簡單句。其中more than 1-2 million修飾賓語articles;each year作時間狀語;介詞短語in some 16,000 journals作狀語。


This is now changing.

?這一局面正在改變。?

【句子講解】本句是一個簡單句,主語是This,謂語is…changing使用現在進行式。副詞now為時間狀語。


According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. 根據經濟合作與發展組織的報告,目前大約有75%的學術刊物可以在網上查閱。

【句子講解】本句是一個“主語(scholarly journals)+系動詞(are)+表語(online)”結構的簡單句。介詞短語According to the OECD report作句子的狀語;some 75% of修飾限定主語scholarly journals;副詞now為時間狀語。

【詞匯注釋】scholarly ['skɑl?li] ?a.學術的;博學的【記】scholar n.學者【例】a scholarly journal 學術刊物

Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report’s authors. 全新的商業模式正在形成;經濟合作與發展組織報告的作者提出了三種主要模式。

【句子講解】本句由兩個并列分句構成。分句一中,主語是business models,謂語are emerging使用現在進行式;Entirely new修飾business models。分句二中,主語是three main ones;謂語were identified使用一般過去時的被動語態,介詞by引出動作的發出者the report’s authors。注意分句二中ones指代分句一中的models。


There is the socalled big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements.

?一種是所謂的大批量模式,即機構訂閱用戶通過網站許可協議方式購買在線期刊的閱讀權限。

【句子講解】本句是復合句。主句使用了There be句型,由“There+be(is)+主語(the socalled big deal)”構成。where引導的非限定性定語從句,修飾the so-called big deal;從句的結構為“主語(institutional subscribers)+謂語(pay for)+賓語(access)”,介詞短語to a collection of online journal titles作access的后置定語,介詞短語through sitelicensing agreements作方式狀語。

【詞匯注釋】institutional [,?nst?'tu??nl] ?a.公共機構的,慈善機關的;制度的【記】institutionalize v.使……制度化【例】There are so many old people in need of institutional care. 需要慈善機構照顧的老人有很多。license* ['la?sns] ?v.許可;給……執照或許可證【詞組】site-licensing agreements網站許可協議


There is openaccess publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.

?一種是開放出版模式,其特點是由作者或者雇主支付出版費用。

【句子講解】本句為There be句型,由“There+be(is)+主語(openaccess publishing)”構成;過去分詞短語supported…作open-access publishing的后置定語,副詞typically修飾supported,介詞短語by asking…作supported的方式狀語;其中,the author作asking的賓語,動詞不定式短語to pay for the paper作the author的補足語;括號里的or his employer補充說明the author,動詞不定式短語to be published作the paper的后置定語。


Finally, there are openaccess archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories.

?最后一種是開放檔案模式,即由機構,如大學或者國際實驗室資助建成公共機構的論文檔案庫。?

【句子講解】本句是復合句。主句使用了there be句型,由“there+be(are)+主語(openaccess archives)”構成,副詞Finally作狀語。where引導的非限定性定語從句,修飾open-access archives;從句的結構為“主語(organizations)+謂語(support)+賓語(institutional repositories)”,such as universities or international laboratories舉例說明主語。

【詞匯注釋】archive ['ɑrka?v] ?n.檔案文件 v.把……存檔【記】archivist n.檔案保管員【例】My leader asked ?me to find him an ancient document in the archives. 我的上級要我給他在檔案里找一份老掉牙的文件。repository [r?'pɑz?'t?ri] ?n.貯藏室;知識寶庫;知己【詞綴】詞根pos意為“放置”【例】My grandpa is a repository of stories. 我爺爺有說不完的故事。


Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it.

?其他模式是上述三種模式的混合體,例如延時開放模式,即刊物在出版后的前六個月只允許刊物的訂戶查閱,然后再免費向其他希望查閱刊物的讀者開放。

【句子圖解】

【要點注釋】由于主句主語的修飾成分較長,為了避免頭重腳輕,故將主語與定語從句隔開。

【詞匯注釋】hybrid ['ha?br?d ?n.混合物;雜交植物(或動物)【詞組】a hybrid system合成系統


All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.?

所有這些模式都會改變傳統的同行評審方式,至少在論文出版方面是如此。

【句子講解】本句是“主語(All this)+謂語(could change)+賓語(the traditional form)”結構的簡單句。介詞短語of the peer-review process作form的后置定語。介詞短語at least for the publication of papers作整個句子的狀語。


答案 : 26~30 DCAAB


本文解析來自《考研真相》



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